Tuesday, November 30, 2004

What's next?

Falsified elections, declining dollar, at least two foreign wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, if not a third in Columbia,all fanning the flames of anti-US hatred overseas, while environmental havoc is wrought at home; its a mess. Meanwhile warheads talk of yet another war against Iran.

With optical scan central tabulator and touchscreen voting machines corrupted by software design, we can't vote our way out of this – we just tried that, and the majority lost.(See:http://www.geocities.com/briancady413/RealMapWebPage.html)

Most have no idea that there's a problem, and the media seems determined to block fair consideration of the important news; vote suppression, ballot fraud, international laws broken, napalm used.

We need another way, and I am not sure what that is. I guess it is independent homegrown news outlets, like tiny radio, mimeographed newsletters and blogs like this. We ought to actually start paying for news somehow; paying people we know we can trust for good, undistorted news which may confuse us at first, since we've been misled on context for so long.

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

A Decree of Separation - Splitting a wedge issue

Did you hear that the separation of church and state might end in divorce over this whole marriage-civil union affair?

But seriously, it is past time to rent asunder this divisive wedge issue into its constituent parts. The principal of church and state separation can guide us through. Marriage is a religious custom, while civil union is not, but is governmental, which marriage ought not be. Got that?

In other words, let's get government out of the marriage business altogether. Laws of our commonwealth should be rewritten, replacing 'marriage' with 'civil union' . Let religions marry or not, as they will, and let our government protect their right to do so, while freely uniting willing couples of all sorts in non-religious civil unions only, not in marriages, to which no religion can sanely object.

This gives freedom to individuals, sanity to law, and leaves any sanctity to religions and marriage.

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Can we replenish Northwest Atlantic Banks' fish stocks by chumming with iron?

Restoring the Banks' fish stocks to levels of two centuries ago might be possible now, and affordable, due to science and ecology turning a corner of understanding this past year.

Reportedly, declines in Banks' productivity over past decades have paralleled declines in dust from the Gobi desert falling across the North Pacific, North America and the North Atlantic. This North Asian desert is said to be the most important dust source for the temperate lattitudes.

But how can a little dust in a vast ocean matter? The link is iron, which is very rare in the oceans. Blue-green algae use iron in their nitrogen-fixing enzyme, which allows them to use dissolved air's nitrogen to form proteins and such. A little iron allows them to fix a lot of nitrogen. Since growth of Banks' sealife is usually limited by lack of nitrogen, and many organisms feed directly or indirectly on blue-green algae, blue-green algae and added iron might help feed all sealife there the nitrogen-rich food they lack.

If iron will help Banks' productivity, it will be noticable quickly, since plantlike phytoplankton are said to double in a day, given the right conditions. If blue-green algae double for three days with added iron, and zooplankton, which eat them, double the day after that, wandering herring, mackerel and such that eat zooplankton might soon stay to feast, attracting cod, haddock and other top-value fish. Fishermen might find it worth their while to spread iron over an area at the beginning of the week, then return at the end to the week to net the gathered fish.

There are many iron and steel wreaks on and near the Banks, yet the Banks don't produce as they did. Most of the iron in these wreaks is hard for sealife to get to - there is little surface area to allow access by sealife, compared to windblown dust. Experiments in other oceans have found iron sulphate works well, when spread across surface waters by ship.

Iron is rare in the oceans because it tends to precipitate out and settle down out of the sunlit surface waters. But because the Banks are shallow and turbulent, and rich in sealife, iron is recycled quickly on the Banks, and added iron would get used over and over, as opposed to other parts of oceans, where most added iron settles out within days. So on the Banks a little iron might go a long way.

Debbie MacKenzie has pointed out the important role other sealife plays in returning nutrients like nitrogen to the photosynthesizing phytoplankton floating at the sunlit surface. If Banks sealife was continually recycling iron, previously gathered over centuries from blown-in dust, and if heavy fish harvests this century have removed much of that iron, replenishing the iron might restore the Banks' ability to make fish out of the sunlight and seawater that come there, and thus yield enough fish for seals, whales, trawlers and anglers alike.

But if adding iron causes 'red tide' to bloom across the Banks, it might be a huge disaster. There are reports of blooms of blue-green algae, also called cyanobacteria, sickening fish in middle Atlantic states, in estuaries like the Chesapeke and Pamlico Sound, but these occur in the absence of water turbulence and the presence of much dissolved organic matter.

For better or worse, marine science may allow us to change the Banks as we now know them.

Brian Cady

Wednesday, October 06, 2004

Could Trawlers Replenish the Northwest Atlantic Banks' Fish Stock Out of Selfishness?

Recent research suggests iron to be a trace nutrient limiting Banks productivity. Previously, nitrogen was thought to limit Banks' productivity, but tracking dust storms which deposited iron-rich dust into oceans revealed subsequent ocean productivity jumps.

Oceanic bluegreen algae's nitrogen-fixing enzyme uses iron. These algae can fix dissolved atmospheric nitrogen after duststorms supply them with iron, which is otherwise present at only parts per billion concentration in much of the world's deep oceans. Fixed nitrogen becomes available to the blue-green algae and the things that eat and decompose them, and so to the entire ocean ecosystem, unlike atmospheric dissolved nitrogen atoms, which form pairs, and do not react easily with other atoms.

Replenishing amounts of iron previously removed within harvested fish might restore Banks productivity, and thus bring back bountiful fish harvests. But co-ordinating public financing of even research trials may prove impossible or slow. Here trawler self-interest may serve.

Where a small area of the Banks, if limited by iron, receives iron, plankton can photosynthesize more, and rapidly increase - phytoplankton can double in a day. herring, mackerel and other plankton-eating fish that enter this area would stay to feed on plankton, as would cod, haddock and other fish-eating fish with higher market value, to feed on herring, etc.. So trawlers might spread iron, wait, then capture some of the gathered cod, etc., and thus help the Banks while helping themselves.

Monday, September 27, 2004

We need an emergency plan for our economy.

If oil prices leap while our dollar plummets, we will have to do without cheap oil for heat, car fuel and industry.

We can heat our homes with wood, and the forests of the northeast could use firewood thinnings done, but there will not be enough sustainably producible firewood to replace all the oil burnt each year for home heating. Hence we will need to increase home insulation and lower thermostats, and wear more clothes.

Coal could be used more for heating, too, but only safely with furnace conversions - burning coal can melt wood or oil furnaces and releases carbon monoxide.

Making nitrogen fertilizer for agriculture uses a lot of energy, which growing legumes can substitute for, as legumes, in partnership with microbes, make air's nitrogen usable. Natural gas is used to make most nitrogen fertilizer now, but when oil prices soar, natural gas prices follow.

So expensive oil won't be the end of the world, if we have a plan to deal with it.

Restoring the Banks: Debbie MacKenzie and Zooplankton's Deep Daily Dawn Dive.

Over the past decades, as Grand and Georges Bank's fish stocks have fallen, along with zooplankton biomass, satallite photos show phytoplankton biomass to be increased. While at first this seems surprizing, Debbie MacKenzie has explained how this can happen: In an imaginary pasture, taller grass doesn't mean faster grass growth, if less cows are now grazing the grass.

But with less fish reducing zooplankton biomass, and more phytoplankton to graze, why don't zooplankton levels rebound? Debbie shows how oceanic zooplankton fill a unique role, accompanying their unique, and previously puzzling deep dawn dive from, and nightly return to, the surface, where they feed. In diving and returning in this way, zooplankton ferry needed nutrients from the deep to sunlit surface phytoplankton, which use these nutrients to photosynthesize. With less zooplankton, phytoplankton get less ferried nutrients, and can not do as much photosynthesizing. This reduces the amount of sunlight energy entering the Bank's food chains, so there is less to feed fish, and reduced fish stocks and harvests result.

But why are zooplankton doing less ferrying - why are their numbers and biomass reduced? What is missing that once was there? Debbie suggests that heavy harvesting of fish has actually removed such large amounts of important nutrients from the Banks that the zooplankton have less to ferry, no matter how numerous they are, so the phytoplankton are starving. The only reason there aren't less phytoplankton, instead of more, is that zooplankton are starving even more, and so leave more, but hungrier phytoplankton behind.

One supporting fact here is the scarcity of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron in oceanic ecosystems. Phosphorus tends to form solids and precipitate out of aquatic environments; it and nitrogen are major plant nutrients, and nitrogen tends to directly limit Banks productivity.

Iron is very, very rare in deep ocean waters. Because iron is central to enzymes which catalyze fixation of dissolved nitrogen from air, it may play a key role in the failure of Bank's fish stocks to recover as expected. By allowing bluegreen algae and such to fix nitrogen from the air, replenishing the iron removed by our fish harvesting may trigger a resurgence in the Bank's sealife, and at a very affordable cost. And then again it might not, but because iron replenishment would be affordable, and the research to confirm iron's role here would also be both affordable and safe, we should test it.

If iron is a limiting nutrient on the Banks, then we are very lucky - small amounts of iron could significantly increase Bank's water's iron concentrations, but the amount of nitrogen needed to significantly affect concentrations on the Banks would cost a lot of money, and require enormous amounts of energy to make - nitrogen fertilizer production is very energy intensive.

Brian Cady